Timeline of The Presbyterian Church in Canada and Indigenous People

Presbyterian Missionaries begin working with Indigenous people

1866

Four branches of Presbyterians join together and become The Presbyterian Church in Canada (PCC)

1875
Birtle Residential School

G-1741-FC-1 Birtle Residential School c. 1890

Birtle Residential School opens in Birtle, Manitoba and Round Lake Residential School opens in Broadview, Saskatchewan

1884

Portage la Prairie Residential School opens in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba

1886
File Hills Residential School

G-1747-FC File Hills Residential School, 1904

File Hills Residential School opens in Balcarres, Saskatchewan and Muscowpetung Residential School opens in Fort Qu’Appelle, Saskatchewan

1888

Stoney Plain Residential School opens in Stony Plain, Alberta and Crowstand Residential School opens in Kamsack, Saskatchewan

1889
Indigenous Children at the Alberni School

G-6954-FC-31 Indigenous Children at the Alberni School ca. 1915

Alberni Residential School opens in Port Alberni, British Columbia

1890

Regina Residential School opens in Regina, Saskatchewan

1891

Stoney Plains Residential School closes

1893
Indigenous students at Ahousaht School and Play Grounds

G-6973-FC-2 Indigenous students at Ahousaht School and play ground ca. 1907

Ahousaht Residential School opens in Ahousaht, British Columbia

1896

Muscowpetung Residential School closes

1896
Cecilia Jeffrey Residential School

G-3914-FC-2 Cecilia Jeffrey Residential School ca. 1960

Cecilia Jeffrey Residential School opens near Kenora, Ontario

1902

Over 500 Indigenous children are attending Presbyterian Residential Schools

1908

Regina Industrial School closes

1910
Graduates of Birtle Indian Residential School, 1911

G-6373-FC Graduates of Birtle Residential School, 1911

There were 21 centres of Indigenous mission work: 8 boarding schools, 7 day schools attached to reserves, 6 reserves near boarding schools

1914

Crowstand Residential School closes

1915

The United Church of Canada is established and assumes responsibility for Ahousaht, Alberni, File Hills, Portage la Prairie and Round Lake Residential Schools, The PCC continues to operate Birtle and Cecilia Jeffrey Residential Schools

1925

The PCC General Assembly begins studying, acknowledging, and considering actions to address injustices done to Indigenous people

1960
Anamiewigummig Fellowship Centre

G-3882-FC-1 Anamiewigummig (Kenora) Fellowship Centre ca. 1961

The PCC opens Anamiewigummig Fellowship Centre in Kenora, Ontario, an Indigenous Ministry

1961

The PCC’s responsibility for Birtle and Cecilia Jeffrey Residential Schools is transferred to the Government of Canada

1969

Birtle Residential School closes

1970
Birtle School and grounds

G-6585-FC-1 Birtle School and grounds ca. 1955

Reports to General Assemblies in 1975 and 1976 advocate for non-Indigenous members to be informed about the Residential School legacy

1975
Students at Cecilia Jeffrey Residential School

G-84-SC-62 Students at Cecilia Jeffrey Residential School waiting to board a bus to go home for the summer ca. 1960

Cecilia Jeffrey Residential School closes

1976

The PCC opens Saskatoon Native Circle Ministry in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, moving to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 1986, an Indigenous Ministry

1980

The PCC opens Cariboo Presbyterian Church in Cariboo-Chilcotin, British Columbia, an Indigenous Ministry

1988

The PCC forms the National Native Ministries Council

1989

The Board of World Mission presents the Confession to the General Assembly for its adoption

1992

The General Assembly adopts the Confession and the PCC presents it to Phil Fontaine, Grand Chief of the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs

1994
G-3664-FC-33

G-3664-FC-33 Rev. George Vais presents the Confession to Phil Fontaine, 1994

The last Residential School in Canada closes

1996

The PCC opens Hummingbird Ministries in Vancouver, British Columbia, an Indigenous Ministry

2005

The PCC launches the Walking Together program to support and seed funding for local healing and reconciliation efforts

2006

The Indian Residential School Agreement comes into effect, which includes the formation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC). The PCC creates the Healing and Reconciliation Seed Fund

2007

The PCC opens Place of Hope Indigenous Presbyterian Church in Winnipeg, Manitoba, an Indigenous Ministry

2007

The Government of Canada issues a Statement of Apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools

2008

Local Leader Training Workshop at Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation, Cape Croker, Ontario, 2015

The PCC launches its first local leader training workshop for leaders of congregations, presbyteries, and communities

2008

The PCC participates in the first national TRC event in Winnipeg, Manitoba

2010
Group photograph at TRC Inuvik, Northwest Territories

G-6612-FC-37 Group photograph at TRC national event in Inuvik, Northwest Territories, 2011. First row from right is Commissioner Chief Witton Littlechild; third from right is Commissioner Marie Wilson; second row fourth from right is Shelagh Roders (from CBC); fifth from right is Chief Justice Murrey St. Clair; others are survivors who are now northern political leaders, artists, and a Senator

The PCC participates in national TRC events in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Inuvik, Northwest Territories

2011

The PCC opens Cedar Tree Ministries in Cowichan, British Columbia, an Indigenous Ministry

2012
TRC national event in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

G-6840-FC-1 TRC national event in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 2012

The PCC participates in national TRC event in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

2012
TRC national event in Vancouver, British Columbia

G-6841-FC TRC national event in Vancouver, British Columbia, 2013

The PCC participates in national TRC events in Montreal, Quebec and Vancouver, British Columbia

2013

The PCC participates in national TRC event in Edmonton, Alberta

2014

The PCC issues a statement concerning respect for Indigenous spiritual practices

2015

The PCC participates in TRC closing event in Ottawa, Ontario where 94 Calls to Action are announced

2015

The PCC and other churches respond to findings and Calls to Action issued by the TRC

2015
Churches respond to TRC

The parties of the Settlement Agreement, along with the Jesuits of English Canada, make a joint response to the findings and Calls to Action issued by the TRC. Second from the left is the Rev. Dr. Stephen Farris, Moderator of the PCC, 2015.

The PCC announces plan to implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

2016
churches respond to TRC #48

Churches respond to TRC deadline on commitment to reconciliation. Press conference Ottawa. Third from the right is Rev. Karen Horst of the PCC. From Churches respond to TRC #48, by KAIROS Canada, https://www.kairoscanada.org/photo-albums/2016-events?aid1=10154595628566686#jfbalbum1. Copyright 2019, KAIROS Canada. Reprinted with permission.

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